Given a set of distinct integers, arr, return all possible subsets (the power set).
For example :
Input: nums = [1,2,3] Output: [ [3], [1], [2], [1,2,3], [1,3], [2,3], [1,2], [] ]1
Using recursion
You can find all subsets of set or power set using recursion. Here is the simple approach.
 As each recursion call will represent subset here, we will add resultList(see recursion code below) to the list of subsets in each call.
 Iterate over elements of a set.

In each iteration
 Add elements to the list
 explore(recursion) and make start = i+1 to go through remaining elements of the array.
 Remove element from the list.
Here is java code for recursion.
import java.util.ArrayList; import java.util.List; public class SubsetsOfSetJava { public static void main(String[] args) { SubsetsOfSetJava soa= new SubsetsOfSetJava(); int[] nums= {1, 2, 1}; List<List<Integer>> subsets = soa.subsets(nums); for (List<Integer> subset: subsets) { System.out.println(subset); } } public List<List<Integer>> subsets(int[] nums) { List<List<Integer>> list = new ArrayList<>(); subsetsHelper(list, new ArrayList<>(), nums, 0); return list; } private void subsetsHelper(List<List<Integer>> list , List<Integer> resultList, int [] nums, int start){ list.add(new ArrayList<>(resultList)); for(int i = start; i < nums.length; i++){ // add element resultList.add(nums[i]); // Explore subsetsHelper(list, resultList, nums, i + 1); // remove resultList.remove(resultList.size()  1); } } }
Output
[] [1] [1, 2] [1, 2, 1] [1, 1] [2] [2, 1] [1]
Let’s understand with the help of a diagram.
If you notice, each node(resultList) represent subset here.
Using bit manipulation
You can find all subsets of set or power set using iteration as well.
There will be 2^N subsets for a given set, where N is the number of
elements in set.
For example, there
will be 2^4 = 16 subsets for the set {1, 2, 3, 4}.
Each ‘1’ in the binary representation indicate an element in that
position.
For example, the binary
representation of number 6 is 0101 which in turn represents the subset {1,
3} of the set {1, 2, 3, 4}.
How can we find out which bit is set for binary representation, so that we can include the element in the subset?
To check if 0th bit is set, you can do logical & with 1 To check if 1st bit is set, you can do logical & with 2 To check if 2nd bit is set, you can do logical & with 2^2 . . To check if nth bit is set, you can do logical & with 2^n.
Let’s say with the help of example:
For a set {1 ,2, 3}
0 1 1 & 0 0 1 = 1 –> 1 will be included in subset
0 1 1 & 0 1 0 = 1 –> 2 will be included in subset
0 1 1 & 1 0 0 =0 –> 3 will not be included in subset.
Here is java code for the bit approach.
public class SubsetBitMain { // Print all subsets of given set[] static void printSubsets(int set[]) { int n = set.length; // Run a loop from 0 to 2^n for (int i = 0; i < (1<<n); i++) { System.out.print("{ "); int m = 1; // m is used to check set bit in binary representation. // Print current subset for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) { if ((i & m) > 0) { System.out.print(set[j] + " "); } m = m << 1; } System.out.println("}"); } } // Driver code public static void main(String[] args) { int set[] = {1 ,2, 3}; printSubsets(set); } }
Output
{ } { 1 } { 2 } { 1 2 } { 3 } { 1 3 } { 2 3 } { 1 2 3 }
Here is a complete representation of the bit manipulation approach.